@Free Ì The Myth of Race ⚡ eBook or E-pub free

An important book that needs to be read by anyone interested in the resurgence of people touting a scientific perspective on the differences in human ability based on race or some other type of broad categorization Dr Robert Sussman, a noted biologist, wrote this book in 2014 and it was published a year later, but it s contents are so strikingly relevant to the political climate of today, that it s hard to believe it wasn t written directly as a response to the contemporary news on the resurgence of neo nazis and ethno nationalist in the United States The text is a fairly detailed overview of the idea of race starting with folk racism of pre modern times, which existed in many human societies, basically, people noticing differences amongst each other and attributing behavioural patterns to each identifiable group Sussman then outlines how these notions were mixed in Europe with the rise of revolutionary Christendom to build a kind of proto prejudice which melded perfectly with the concept of being one of the flock vs of the world , though, at this time, groups were still open to others coming in or going out of their group, so long as they abided by their practices religion in this case Then he shows this base served as a foundation to the human and social anthropology perspective, intersecting with ideas from physical anthropology I think this might be called evolutionary anthropology in modern textbooks of the 1800s, with the birth of eugenics.This draws a line of the development of the concept of race from folk mannerisms to classical biology, where it was initially viewed as a legitimate unit of measurement to demarcate humans, to its expulsion in the 1930s and 40s, first in the United States, with the rejection of the eugenicist movement, to then the rest of Europe after the war, to it s resurgence in the American south in the 1950s, with the tacit support of people like Bill Shockley, the father of the transistor, which was used to justify the lack of social welfare programs to help African Americans and other non European citizens and immigrants to be provided with social welfare opportunities, and finally, to its mutation in the 80s, 90s, 00 s to the notion of culture , to justify blocking of immigration from culturally incompatible peoples, captioning with its inflammation into something closer to outright racism in the past 2 years.Roughly half the book focuses on the science or lack thereof of these ideas, including disentangling the notion that traits behaviours race are somehow linked at a deep level, mostly from the perspective of understanding alleles One of the immediate applications of this disentanglement is disabusing one of the notions that strata of intelligence or any other behavioural trait that could be observed by humans measured by some performance test IQ can be pinned down as idiosyncratic to any race of people This fallacy is revealed mostly using simple biostatistics to observe variance of traits within group vs between, and showing that the former often is greater than the later, breaking the utility of race as a biological construct Further, modern works in genetics lendevidence to this by illustrating how intelligence is a very nebulous and thus complicated phenomena, leading at least, to a powerful feasibility argument, that it is unlikely any identifiable races could claim exclusive monopoly, to the exclusion of, or even preponderance to the upper strata of intelligence performance, which itself is not even true intelligence whatever that may be.The other half is probably a farinteresting story for most readers, as it outlines the persona that was involved in the struggle of ideas from the 19th century to modern times An obscure figure in biology emerges as the hero of this story, Franz Boaz, who was one of the first to challenge the primacy of the eugenicist which had ensconced themselves in both high academia and the top policy governing circles of much of the Western world in the early 20th century It was Boaz that started to leverage data and statistical techniques to disprove assertions of Physiognomy, which claimed a correlation between cranial skull dimensions of various races and observable behavioural traits Boaz was first to observe that variance within was often higher than between for whatever he was measuring within a race , by measuring dimensions of head hands etc of Eskimos This would later be shown to often be true for non observables by eye , at the gene level.What Sussman does convincingly is linking these early eugenicists with modern practitioners of this ideology, via the investments from organizations like the Pioneer Fund , which has its origins to the Third Reich, FAIR , and other far right organizations which have shaped policy from immigration reform to social welfare from the 80s onwards These organizations have sought to either prevent legal immigration to the United States or slow it down, using the rationale of culture hereby shown cleanly by Sussman to be a stand in for race in the modern use , and to simultaneously remove social programs for culturally incompatible peoples, which have included at one point or another in the last 70 years, African Americans, Latin Americans, Asian American, and recent immigrant families from these regions They have justified this through a plethora of rationales from the perniciousness of the welfare state to the supposed inability of African Americans to better themselves via education.Sussmann identifies men like Kris Kobach, and other people, who have now become members of the current administration, as people directly funded by the Pioneer Fund or one of its appendages This also includes men like Charles Murray, who recently made some splashes w his misadventures on college campuses.Though Sussman died tragically in the summer of 2016, he all but anticipated the rise of what the New York Times comically labelled recently as the intellectual dark web Men like Sam Harris and Jordan Peterson are basically just touting 100 year old crackpot notions, but hidden under new labels like evolutionary psychology or evolutionary sociology The book ends with an uplifting but vigilante message, with his discussion of the 2nd election of Barack Obama, but warning that this does not mean racism has been expunged from our society The obviousness of his words would be manifest to all just two years later A good companion to this book, dealingwith the biology, genetics, and data of this topic is from the Coursera course Introduction to Human Genetics from the U Minnesota Both that course and this book are highly recommended, especially for those who are coming from a non science, policy background, who wants a clear view of the current ethno nationalist politics of our era, where they come from, exactly how they are a fallacy, and where these ideas will lead if not stopped Highly recommended. Mehbasically just a history of scientific racism, with remarkably little analysis and no new scholarship Stephen Jay Gould did it better,succinctly, and with better structured sentences. @Free Î The Myth of Race ⚪ Biological Races Do Not Exist And Never Have This View Is Shared By All Scientists Who Study Variation In Human Populations Yet Racial Prejudice And Intolerance Based On The Myth Of Race Remain Deeply Ingrained In Western Society In His Powerful Examination Of A Persistent, False, And Poisonous Idea, Robert Sussman Explores How Race Emerged As A Social Construct From Early Biblical Justifications To The Pseudoscientific Studies Of Today The Myth Of Race Traces The Origins Of Modern Racist Ideology To The Spanish Inquisition, Revealing How Sixteenth Century Theories Of Racial Degeneration Became A Crucial Justification For Western Imperialism And Slavery In The Nineteenth Century, These Theories Fused With Darwinism To Produce The Highly Influential And Pernicious Eugenics Movement Believing That Traits From Cranial Shape To Raw Intelligence Were Immutable, Eugenicists Developed Hierarchies That Classified Certain Races, Especially Fair Skinned Aryans, As Superior To Others These Ideologues Proposed Programs Of Intelligence Testing, Selective Breeding, And Human Sterilization Policies That Fed Straight Into Nazi Genocide Sussman Examines How Opponents Of Eugenics, Guided By The German American Anthropologist Franz Boas S New, Scientifically Supported Concept Of Culture, Exposed Fallacies In Racist ThinkingAlthough Eugenics Is Now Widely Discredited, Some Groups And Individuals Today Claim A New Scientific Basis For Old Racist Assumptions Pondering The Continuing Influence Of Racist Research And Thought, Despite All Evidence To The Contrary, Sussman Explains Why When It Comes To Race Too Many People Still Mistake Bigotry For Science I wanted to like this book because I m very interested in the topic It may well have good information in it, but it s poorly written and I just couldn t justify slogging through it when Stephen Jay Gould is out there. Great scholarly book about the history of racism and scientific racism Even as a anti racist, this book had some new information on scientific findings of human diversity But the main aim of this book is tracing the history of racist movements and debunking their claims with actual science.Biggest problem is it centrality to US politics European modern far right is not analyzed here Second is that this book is too detailed It traced meticulously the lives of eugenicists and race realists in lengths that i did not care for Still a great recourse against the most dangerous myth of our age. The belief in race as an objective, biological reality has been very strong, pervasive, and significant in much of public policy Yet scientists say it is simply not real There is neither very much genetic variability in humans compared to other species, even our closest relatives, nor is it distributed in humans in anything like the consistent patterns that, in other species, define the biological concept of races.Humans are all one species, with no subspecies, no biological races.Yet the idea is powerful and persistent Robert Wald Sussman lays out the history of the idea of races, and early explanations for differences He works through the ideas of pre Adamites separate, earlier creations of non white humans, also called polygenesis , and degeration the idea that humans are all descendants of Adam, but non whites are degenerated forms, also called monogenesis Monogenesis at least left open the possibility that differences might be environmental, and perhaps be overcome, but that was often an inconvenient, and thus unpopular, idea.He also lays out the completely unscientific nature of these ideas Humans are all descended from the same source, and as noted above, there s very little genetic variation in humans compared to other species A friend involved with English shepherds and responsible breeding commented that, by dog breeding standards, humans have a terrifying COI, i.e., coefficient of inbreeding Sussman describes the intertwined effects of the pseudo scientific theories of racial origins and racial inferiority, and the political theories and policies that grew from them including the rise of the eugenics movement in the US and Germany Influences flowed back and forth between Germany and the US, getting worse and worse.At the same time, the rise of real genetic science, and the development of cultural anthropology, also began to undermine those theories.It s a fascinating and alarming account, and the racial theories are still with us today, affecting today s policies on immigration, education, health care, and the social safety net It s well written, read well by the narrator, and tremendously informative.Recommended.I bought this audiobook. This is not an analysis, just a rough history the history alone takes upthan enough space and there s plenty that isn t covered But all the same it manages to bring up the points that rebut authors like Steve Pinker and Sam Harris, and just straight up do a better job of rather crap and either gutless or sheer nonsense books like Hitler s American Model I see a few complaints about the writing It s just very straight forward and simple sentences, sufficiently devoid of personality and emotion as to be rather dull I m pretty much immune to boredom so long as the topic itself is interesting tho, I don t take issue with it even if I do prefer authors with charisma, or even cheesy humour. This book should be required reading for all citizens and taught in high schools, perhaps using an edited simplified text, the Cliff Notes version Basically the facts are 1 humans are all one race, a fact that has been established scientifically through genetics and other biological sciences 2 the first evil of racism is that it promotes the false concept of races 3 the differences within humanity are cultural not racial 4 there is a long history of radical conservatives using the concept of races to divide humanity so they can advance the conservative agenda. Used this as a textbook last year in Race and Ethnic Relations Highly recommended Well written and documented, and covers all the important issues of why the world would care so much to make race real important in biology Extensive sections on eugenics, Nazism, scientific racism , both in the out of the universities On the former, he includes the most infamous Phillippe Rushton, a biologist in Canada dead a couple years now Allah Rest His Soul who regularly claimed that Whites had the biggest brains and the smallest penises, Blacks the biggest penises and smallest brains, and Asians somewhere in the middle I saw a letter in a Science for the People study group in Boston meeting where E.O Wilson the famous entomologist sociobiologist, whom many don t know had racist tendencies in support of Rushton s tenure in the late 80s saying that most all biologists believed similarly to Rushton but were afraid to say so publically Silly political correctness not to support racial superiority theories, I guess. Anyone who understands evolutionary biology and genetics knows that the notion of human races is not a biological or scientific one The author does a good job of presenting the history of race and racism from the time of the Spanish Inquisitions to the 21st century Read it and see how the racists of today are really no different than those of the past although some aresubtle sharing the same language, bigoted hatred and same myth based notions found in polygenism, monogenism, eugenics and scientific racism.